Anthropology of proto-Mongols and the Mongols

/Prominent cheekbones, moustache and Mongoloid features are characteristic of all stone men-"hun chuluu". At Hoshoo Tsaidam burial site there are 900 such stones streching for 3 km./

An impression of the Mongols: "Two were Mongolian lamas in shabby robes of saffron and crimson, bound at the waist by twisted sashes of faded purple cloth. One lama had a crushed felt hat on his shaven head, the other was bare-headed, and both wore high, leather Mongol boots. The one with hat was tall and rather gaunt, with a long nose, and sunken cheeks below high cheekbones. The other was shorter and more thickset, with a broader face. Both might have been taken for American Indians. As we camp up, they were in the act of replacing their carved snuff-bottles in their belt-purses, having taken them out to exchange them with third man, who had just joined them.
The newcomer was a layman, with a frank, pleasant expression in contrast to the somewhat furtive looks of the lamas. He too would have resembled an American Indian except for the long, drooping moustache under his small, finely chiseled nose. Unlike the lamas, he was wearing a dark blue summer robe of heavy serge, with a red sash, a brown belt hat, and cloth boots. Though the features and dress of all three were so typically Mongol, and unlike anything we had seen in China, I thought I would try the experiment of greeting them in Chinese. The taller monk answered, with quite a strong accent, explaining that he, like many other lamas of the border regions I had visited, often had occasion to deal with the Chinese merchants in buying things for his temple, and had learned their language in that way.
pages 6, 7. "The Land of the Camel" by Schuiler Cammann. 1950. The Ronald Press Company. NewYork.

An impression of the Mongols: " We found the Mongols to be a hospitable people with full, healthy-looking faces and often with handsome and intelligent intelligent features...
In the morning several Mongol men and women looked in on us and very kind-heartedly sewed the extensions on our sleeves and fixed knapsacks for us. The Chinese have a long way to go to match the Mongols in kindness...".
"The Chinese Agent In Mongolia" by Ma Ho-t'ien. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press, 1949.

Mr.Ondor Gongor-He was at least, the tallest ever Mongol:

A research team braves Central Asia to capture a surprising genetic record of human migration and military conquest

by Robert Kunzig

It could not have spread so fast and so far by chance, yet natural selection made a poor explanation: The full sequence of the Y chromosome has been determined, but it doesn’t seem to do much except make the bearer male. Zerjal and Tyler-Smith started reading up on Mongolian history. They noticed that the vast range of the distinctive star-cluster chromosome corresponded almost exactly to the extent of Genghis Khan’s empire. The only outlier is a small ethnic group called the Hazaras, who live in northern Pakistan, which Genghis never conquered. The puzzling chromosomes are more frequent in the Hazaras today than in any other population, even the Mongols. But the Hazaras migrated into Pakistan from neighboring Afghanistan only in the 19th century, and they brought with them an interesting oral tradition: They claim to be direct descendants of one of Genghis Khan’s battalions. Some even claim, with genealogies to back them up, to be direct descendants of Genghis Khan himself. The Hazaras don’t refute the case, says Tyler-Smith; they cinch it. “It was a conclusion that was forced upon us.”

That doesn’t mean those Central Asian men have inherited some interesting trait from Genghis Khan, like his fierceness or his lust. To the extent that such traits are genetic at all, they probably involve many genes, none of which is likely to be on the Y chromosome. And although the rest of Genghis Khan’s genome has certainly, if Zerjal and Tyler-Smith are right, made an outsize contribution to the Central Asian gene pool, it has been chopped to bits and mixed in so thoroughly over the centuries by genetic recombination that no one today is likely to have his whole suite of genes for any particular trait. What they have, in his intact Y chromosome, is more like an invisible birthmark.

Genghis Khan was not necessarily the first to have it; its rough age of 1,000 years suggests he inherited it from an ancestor, perhaps a great-great-great-grandfather. Nor was he the only one to spread it: His brothers, sons, grandsons, and some of his cousins would have had the same Y chromosome. His sons and grandsons ruled the empire he built; one grandson, Kublai, was emperor of China. Presumably they enjoyed sexual opportunities similar to Genghis’s, and some were just as vigorous about exterminating competition. According to one chronicle written a century after Genghis’s birth, there were more than 20,000 people of his lineage “living in the comfort of wealth and affluence.”

The Aimaq-Hazara are a minority tribe located in the central mountains of Afghanistan. They belong to a larger cluster of eight tribes, the Char Aimaq, who are scattered throughout Afghanistan and northernIran. All of these tribes speak a language called Aimaq, which is a part of the Persian language family, but includes some Turkic vocabulary.

Over the years, the Char Aimaq tribes have been moved, split, and combined by various governments. The Aimaq-Hazara are a semi-nomadic tribe that roams freely on journeys across the rugged mountain ranges. They inhabit an area that is known for its world famous trade routes. Interaction with various people groups has produced a mixed heritage among the Char Aimaq. Most of them have pronounced Mongoloid features and claim to have descended from the soldiers of Genghis Kahn. The Char Aimaq appear to have been active in defending against the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, as well as in the subsequent civil war.


Buryat Mongol sodiers during Russia- Japanese War, 1905: